Metastatic and pathophysiological characteristics of breast cancer with emphasis on hereditary factors

Document Type : Review Paper


1 Fertility and Infertility Research Center, Health Technology Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Department of Advanced Medical Science & amp, Technologies, School of Medicine, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran

3 Afzalipour clinical center for infertility, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

4 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.


Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women and the second leading cause of deaths after lung cancer. Each year, more than 180,000 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed in the United States. The risk of breast cancer is low before the age of 35, but the high prevalence of this type of cancer is diagnosed after the age of 35. The risk of developing breast cancer in a woman's lifetime is about 10% and 5-10% with a familiar genetic basis. The accumulation of breast and ovarian cancers in certain families indicates that genetic variations are involved in developing these types of cancers. In 1994, two genes were identified to be linked to familial breast cancers. Gene variations in these two genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) are found in most familial breast cancers, and variations in several other genes may also be involved in this cancer. The molecular functions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 are still unclear, although they could be involved in repairing damaged DNA or regulating the transcription of hormone-responsive genes. Mutations in these genes are predominantly autosomally transmitted by variable penetration. Women with BRCA1 variations are up to 50 percent more susceptible to breast cancer pending their lifetime. However, there are some other genes in which the variation may result in breast cancer occurrence. In this paper, we assessed some features of breast cancer to focus on hereditary aspects.

Graphical Abstract

Metastatic and pathophysiological characteristics of breast cancer with emphasis on hereditary factors


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