Early diagnostic biomarkers of Lung cancer; a review study

Document Type : Review Paper


1 Human Genetics Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences Tehran, Iran

2 Abadan Faculty of Medical Sciences,Abadan,Iran


Lung cancer is the main cause of cancer-related death. Typically, lung cancer has been classified in two histologic types; small and non-small cell (NSC), with adenocarcinoma, squamous cell form and large cell type. The availability of predictive biomarkers for the treatment of NSC lung cancer (NSCLC) has been changed in recent decades, especially in the form of adenocarcinoma. Controlling for sensitizing mutations inside the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) for patients with advanced adenocarcinomas is currently needed before the achievement of anti-EGFR inhibitors (such as erlotinib, gefitinib, afatinib or osimertinib). In a patient with no signs of tumor tissue, the EGFR mutational plasma and urine examination may be performed. ALK gene rearrangement research is required to predict crizotinib reaction. Treatment with ceritinib, alectinib or brigatinib also relies on ALK rearrangements. PD-L1 should be tested with an approved assay to model reactions in patients with advanced adenocarcinoma or squamous cell NSCLCs to the single pembrolizumab agent in their first-line therapy. As miRNAs are a vital biomarker (diagnostic biomarkers), miRNAs also could be used as a dynamic tumor predictor before and during therapy because of their function in carcinogenesis at all stages. Nevertheless, lncRNA sheds fresh insight into our tumor pathway perception. In biomedicine, lncRNA is intensely involved, which can be used for a wide variety of cancers as a clinical diagnostic and prediction predictor.

Graphical Abstract

Early diagnostic biomarkers of Lung cancer; a review study


  • Lung cancer is the main national cause of cancer-related death.
  • ALK gene rearrangement research is required to predict crizotinib reaction.
  • PD-L1 should be tested with an approved assay to model reactions in patients with advanced adenocarcinoma.
  • miRNAs could be used as a dynamic tumor predictor before and during therapy.
  • lncRNA sheds fresh insight on our tumor pathway perception.


Main Subjects

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