The cellular and molecular role of exosomes in the pathophysiology of cancer

Document Type : Review Paper

Authors

1 Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt

2 Allergy and Asthma Center, PAF Hospital Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan

3 Allergy and Asthma Center, Pakistan Allergy-Asthma and Immunology Society, Reseach Center, Islamabad, Pakistan

4 Department of Oncology San Antonio, 6322 Malaga Way, San Antonio, Tx 78257, USA

10.22034/CAJMPSI.2022.05.01

Abstract

Exosomes are small extracellular particles enclosed in two lipid layers with the endosomal origin that contain nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids, and are secreted by most cell types. They can transmit their contents for the intercellular communication signals and stimulate signaling pathways in target cells. Exosomes might contribute to tumor growth and metastasis by controlling the immune response and promoting angiogenesis. Exosomes are involved in the pathology of many cancers with different mechanisms. It interferes in the development of breast tumors through the process of angiogenesis or for example, exosomal lipids play a special role in the pathology of pancreatic cancer. In addition, the mechanism of epithelial-mesenchymal transition plays a role in colorectal cancer. Activation of matrix metalloproteinases destroys the extracellular matrix in prostate cancer and causes metastasis. Therefore, the detailed understanding of the molecular pathways of exosomes involvement in the pathology of various types of cancers can be a very suitable solution in choosing cancer treatment approaches. The aim of this study was to review the exosomes’ role in the progression of cancer.

Graphical Abstract

The cellular and molecular role of exosomes in the pathophysiology of cancer

Highlights

  • Exosomes are extracellular vesicles containing nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids
  • Exosomes are involved in the process of angiogenesis and tumor metastasis.
  • Exosomes are involved in the pathology of cancer by interfering in the control of the immune response.

Keywords

Main Subjects


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