Stroke as a neurodegenerative disease; a review of the introduction, epidemiology, diagnosis, complications and causes

Document Type : Narrative Review


1 Department of Surgical Technology, Paramedic School, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran

2 Member of Research Committee, Medical School, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran

3 Department of Nursing, School of Nahavand Paramedic, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran


Ischemic stroke is a cardiovascular disease that accounts for many deaths and disabilities in developed and developing countries. Stroke can be an ischemic, hemorrhagic, or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Ischemic or obstructive stroke is one of the most common types of stroke that is caused by an obstruction in the arteries supplying blood to the brain. This blockage reduces blood flow and oxygen to the brain leading to damage or death of cells. Failure to re-establish blood circulation can lead to permanent brain damage. Blood tests, electrocardiograms, CT scans or MRIs, vascular imaging, and electroencephalograms are some of the methods used to diagnose ischemia. Major risk factors for stroke such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis have been well established. However, the exact mechanism of stroke is not yet fully understood and may be due to the complex interactions of environmental and genetic factors. Among the genetic factors, there are variants related to the regulation of biosynthesis and catabolism of fats and cholesterol. Given the importance of this issue, the purpose of this study reviewed the epidemiology, diagnostic methods, complications and causes of stroke.

Graphical Abstract

Stroke as a neurodegenerative disease; a review of the introduction, epidemiology, diagnosis, complications and causes


  • Cerebral ischemia is one of the most common neurological diseases that is one of the main causes of death worldwide.
  • Ischemic stroke is caused by obstruction of blood supply to brain tissue, which reduces oxygen levels and damages brain tissue.
  • The interaction of environmental and genetic factors changes the risk of stroke.


Main Subjects

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